In Noh, the main character performs wearing a mask in most cases. In Kyogen too, characters sometimes wear masks according to their roles. Masks used in Noh and Kyogen are called “omote,” and the act of putting on a mask is called “tsukeru” or “kakeru.” Some of the masks are carved out of wood and painted, others are makes from paper. Some of which are highly valued as pieces of art.
In Noh, actors perform wearing masks when they transform themselves into their roles, such as gods and ogres. There are currently dozens of types of masks categorized according to role, gender, age, and other classifications. Different masks are used depending on the play and performance style.
↑Old man masks
The kami of an aged pine tree, cherry tree, or other beings usually appears as an old person. Gods described in Japanese mythology, such as the god of the Sumiyoshi Shrine, appear and celebrate world peace and longevity. Sometimes the dragon god or thunder god appears and dances vigorously by displaying its power.
↑Fierce deity masks
There are oni-masks that are used to drive away the evil spirits that cause epidemics and other disasters, and oni-masks that are used to drive away the evil spirits in turn, and they are used to scatter beans while singing, “The spirits are outside, but the blessings are inside. The oni-men worn at that time were powerful gods who drove away the above-mentioned evil spirits.
The tragedies faced by the warriors are a subject of many Noh plays.
Sometimes he is a passing Taoist priest or poet with good intentions, and sometimes he is a rebellious character who lusts after beauty and indulges in love.
In Noh, famale is more often portrayed as a mentally sharp woman of an advanced age rather than as a young, flamboyant woman. Most of them are troubled by their situation or identity and express their emotional value through dance or language.
↑Vengeful spirit masks
Shura，can be commonly referred to as ghosts or monsters. Most of them appear as unbeatable and high self-esteem, easy to be stabbed image. But they are not exactly the villain of the story.
Kyogen is principally performed without wearing masks. Compared to Noh, there are fewer types of masks. Because daily events are often depicted comically, many masks have familiar expressions that exaggerate the features of the face and draw laughter from the audience, indicating characters such as an old man or woman, ogre, and animal.
Monks. They are mostly right, normal, decent human beings.
The realistic side, mostly expressing animals that have become elves.
Based on the overall tone of the raunchy drama, the demon instead seem less scary than the Noh drama, and they are mostly taken from less serious literature or anecdotal evidence.
* The text part is the part I would read, and writing or not writing on the page depends on how your typography is done more comfortably.
When it comes to the American film industry, people will first think of the mature and professional filming process, technically powerful post-production special effects. Or rather – Hollywood.
I’d like to discuss this part a little. The characteristics that make Hollywood different from other (in this case, most of the world) studios.
The ability to distribute globally.
If you want to maintain a truly global distribution capability, you need to have an equally high level of understanding of all markets around the world and be able to balance the different cultural differences in the same film. To make people around the world laugh at the same point, to make people around the world agree with the same idea, to make people around the world like the same characters. This kind of thing, which requires talent or master artists to make by chance, has become a standardized production operation mechanism in Hollywood. It’s incredible.
I took Jeans Hason’s film history this semester, so I can probably say something logical and right. At the beginning of the 20th century, the United States was facing a second wave of immigration, and the demand for labor for industrial construction prompted a large number of European migrant workers to come across the Atlantic. Because of the lack of other entertainment, these migrant workers supported a huge consumer film market and tens of thousands of theaters, while World War I caused artists to start moving across the ocean as well. In this way, a large number of artists and audiences, almost together, came to the continental United States.
At the same time, because of the rapid development of the economy, income from laborers (the audience) gradually stabilized. Luxurious movie palaces began to be built on a large scale throughout the United States, eliminating the traditional nickelodeon theaters and allowing movies to begin to become fashionable consumption for the emerging American middle class.
This is where the miracle began. As the local film industry fumbled its way to a rapid rise, Americans began to develop their own ambitions for the global distribution of their films. The classroom narrative of the Golden Age of Hollywood mentions five companies that were very brilliant at the time: Paramount, MGM, Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, and Thunderbolt. and three other companies that were also very brilliant: Universal, Columbia, and United Artists.
The high concentration of resources, high-pressure assembly line operations, Wall Street consortium support, and the rigors of the star-making system of the big studio era created the Golden Age.
In Wednesday’s class, the professor said that later these companies were very brilliant at that time, and then gradually declined. Probably because the U.S. government introduced anti-trust laws against Paramount Studios, the oligopoly of the big studio era began to falter. Because Hollywood used to be controlled by eight major studios, independent studios never survived long. The studios had a large number of subordinate direct cinemas to force the scheduling of films, completely occupying the market, and were eventually suppressed by the government.
Say goodbye to the era of being monopolized, so that the big Hollywood studios had to pay more attention to the quality of the film (and also more precisely accomplished the miracle mentioned above: the ability to distribute worldwide.) The downstream projection industry has also pushed the big studios to keep competing for checks and balances in terms of content. It is worth mentioning that without the monopoly of the big companies, independent production companies have also gained opportunities in the screening market, becoming an environmental opportunity for the rise of independent production companies such as Lionsgate Films. Cinema companies also began to have independent development in the environment, the U.S. theaters gradually formed AMC, Regal, and Cinemark three separate patterns, to this day, the entire U.S. about 50% of the screens are controlled by these three theater companies. (I was under the impression that this figure was provided in the film history textbook)
However, it is only a matter of time before the Paramount Act, which no longer applies to the present, is repealed. The film industry now looks to be about to face a new round of market consolidation. Small theater companies should face more difficulties under the domination of the giant market.
For traditional production companies, to resist streaming media, it is inevitable to accumulate theater resources downstream of the industry chain, which is the “Golden Age of Hollywood Studios". Theatrical screening is the last wall for traditional production companies to build up a large IP super-long series of movies. And for the face-to-face theaters, in the inevitable trend of the times, it seems that being merged by bigger capital is also a way to resist the risk itself. I guess the extremely traditional business model of movie theaters is also one of the reasons for the inefficient growth of the U.S. movie market. There is always something that has to change with the times, no matter which times.
Foundation work week six
Which do you identify with more: the pencil or the eraser?
I think an eraser is the same as a pencil. An eraser is a white pencil. The pencil complements the rounded edges of the rubber.
What did you connect with the most in Foundations? According to?
I think it’s knowledge.
But it may actually be group member, and I haven’t worked with a group before, which is very disturbing, but not impossible to overcome.
What was the biggest obstacle to overcome?
How did you do that?
The biggest obstacle was the fear of failure, which I didn’t overcome. But occasionally I try to forget what I’ve learned and think of myself as a fool. This may make you less afraid of failure.
What advice would you give to an incoming art student?
Do it boldly.
Foundation work week five
Foundation work week four
Foundation work week three
Foundation work week two
Foundation work week one
performance of final
About what I want to say to Alfred. What I most want to say, what only I can say, so far, this is it.